Timeline


410
August 24. Rome is sacked by the Visigoths lead by Alaric I marking the
end of the Western Empire. St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time,
wrote that "The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken."[1]
Even though the city fell, it would still remain a center for the Christian
religion under the Church of St. Peter.

453
Attila the Hun dies

507
Franks conquer Visigoth territories just outside Spain

520
St. Benedict of Nursia writes his Holy Rule, a collection of precepts that
guide a priest on his daily duties. These Guidelines form the foundation
to the Order of St. Benedict, also known as the Benedictine Monks.

528 The Emperor Justinian revives Roman Law

536 The Byzantine general Belisarius captures Rome

537 The Church of St. Sophia is completed in Byzantium

563 St. Columba establishes a Celtic monastary at Iona Scotland

568 The Lombards conquer Italy

570 Mohammad is born

590 Pope Gregory elected and reforms the church

622 Mohammad exiled from Mecca

630 Mecca conquered by the Mohammedians

711 The Moors cross North Africa into Spain

726 Iconoclastic controversy in Eastern Church

730 Bede's
History written

732 Battle of Tours. Charles Martel saves Frankish Kingdom from the
Moors

756 Emirate of Cordoba becomes independent

760
The Book of Kells is created

786 First invasion of Danes in England.

792 Viking Raiders attack Lindisfarne monastery on the English Coast

800 Charlemagne proclaimed Roman Emperor

907 The Magyars enter Germany

911 The Duchy of Mormandy is created

955 Battle of Lechfeld ends Magyar threat

964 First record of mining in the Harz mountains in Germany

1000 Leif Erikson discovers the North American Continent

1002 Danish settlers in England are massacred on St. Brice's Day Iron
plows with wheels replace wooden plows
The Byzantine armies of Basil II overrun Macedonia
The Umayyad vizier al-Mansur of Cordova dies
Jan 23 The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III dies of malaria

1003 Norse mariner Thorfinn Karlsefni sails for the Western Hemisphere
The Viking king Sweyn Forkbeard plunders the English coast

1004 The Lombard king Ardoin is defeated by Henry of Bavaria

1005 Scotland's Kenneth III dies

1009 Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem destroyed by Egypt's Fatimid caliph
al-Hakim

1010 The Medical School of Salerno flourishes in Italy
Poetry The Book of the Kings ( The Shah-nama) by Persian poet Mansur
Abu'l-Quasim Firdawsi is created.

1011 England's Ethelred II invades South Wales; the Danes take
Canterbury in his absence.

1012 First persecution of Heretics by the Roman Church
England's Ethelred II pays the Danes another £48,000 to cease
their raids

1013 The Danes conquer England. Ethelred II takes refuge in Normandy.

1014 The Bulgarian army is blinded on orders from Basil II, whose
Byzantine armies annex the western part of Bulgaria
Feb-The Viking king Sweyn Forkbeard dies suddenly at Gainsborough
and is succeeded by his son Canute, 20, who flees to Denmark as
Ethelred returns from Normandy
Feb14-The German king Henry of Bavaria recognizes Benedict VIII as
the rightful pope and is crowned at Rome. He will reign until 1024 as the
Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.
April 23-The Battle of Contarf ends Danish rule in Ireland, but a Dane
kills the Irish king Brian Boru

1015 Normans begin to act as Mercenaries in Italy
  First Italian commune established at Benevento
  Olaf II restores Norwegian independence and reinstates
  Christianity in his realm.
  Wessex yields to Canute who has returned to England to wage war
  against Edmund Ironside.

1017
King Canute divides England into four earldoms, and while Edric,
  brother-in-law of the late King Ethelred, is restored to an earldom,
  he is found untrustworthy and executed.

1018
Alliance made between England and Denmark
 
 Byzantine forces defeat an army of Lombards and Normans at    
  Cannae in a great victory that assures continued domination of
  southern Italy by the Greeks.
  
The Bulgarians submit to Constantinople, which regains Macedonia

1016-35 Cnut reigns in England, Denmark and Norway

1020
Bemberg Cathedral is consecrated by Pope Benedict VIII.
  
Olaf II or Norway gains recognition as king from Faroes, Orkney,
  and Shetland islanders.
  
Pisa annexes Corfu.

1021
A Byzantine army sent by Basil II invades Armenia.
  Epidemics of St. Vitus's dance sweep Europe. The disease is a
  chorea whose victims invoke the name of a Christian child martyr of
  the 3rd century.

1022
Synod of Pavia insists on celibacy in the higher clergy
 
 Byzantine forces in southern Italy are defeated by the Holy Roman
  Emperor Henry II

1024
Sweden's first Christian king Olaf Skutkonung dies
  
July 13- Holy Roman Emperor Henry II dies

1025
Arabian physicist Alhazen is the first man to correctly theorize vision
  
June 17 Poland gains independence from the Holy Roman Empire
  
Dec 15 The Byzantine emperor Basil II dies

1026
King Canute fights off the kings of Norway and Sweden
  
Solmization in music (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la... ) is introduced by the
  Benedictine monk Guido d'Arezzo

1027 Normandy's Richard the Good Dies

1028 Castille annexed by Navarre in Spain
  King Canute conquers Norway
  The Byzantine emperor Constantine VIII dies

1046 The Synod of Sultri places the Papacy at the head of the reform
  movement

1050 The Welsh epic poem the
Mabinogion is written

1052 Work begins on Westminster Abbey in London

1053 Norman Kingdom established in Northren Italy

1054 Split between Roman and Greek Churches becomes permanent

1057 Macbeth, King of Scots is killed by his arch rival Malcolm
1059 Role of College of Cardinal assured in Papal elections
1064 Seljuk Turks establish control of Armenia
1065 Benedictine manual of Clerical music written
1066 Battle of Hastings. William the Conquer becomes King of England
1070 Diet of Augsburg
1071 Normans extend their control into Southern Italy
  Constantine the African introduces Greek medicine to Western
  Europe
  Defeat of Greek Army by Turks at Manzihert. Byzantine lose control
  of Anatolia
1072 Normans capture Palermo in Sicily
1075
Dictus Papae defines papal authority
1077 Submission of emperor Henry IV to the Pope at Canossa
1078 Construction begins of the Tower of London
1079 Peter Abelard, Philosopher and theologian born
1081 Trade agreement between Vinice and the Byzantines established
1083 Emperor Henry IV captures Rome
1084 Carthusian Order founded
1085 Toledo captured from the Moors
1087
The Doomsday Book created, first medieval survey. Gives a
  survey of English land ownership
1094 First gondalas recorded in Venice
1095 March-Council of Piacenza
 July-Sept 1096 Pope Urban's Preaches across France
 Nov.27 Proclamation of First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
1096-1102 First Crusade
1096 Pope Urban compares the Reconquista of Spain to the Crusades
  People Crusade ends in disaster
1096-7 Arrival of the second wave of the crusaders to Constantinople
1097 July 1 Battle of Dorylaeum
  Oct 21-June 3 1098 Siege of Antioch
1098 March 10 Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa
  June 28 Battle of Antioch
  First Cistercian Monestary founded
1099 July 15 Jerusalem falls to Crusaders of the First Crusade: the
  Kingdom of Jerusalem established
  July 22 Godfrey of Bouillon elected Latin ruler of Jerusalem
  Death of El Cid
1101 Aug-Sept Final wave of the First Crusade defeated by the
Turks                in Asia Minor
1107-8 Crusade of Bohemond of Taranto
1108 Sept Bohemond surrenders to the Greeks
1109 July 12 Capture of Tripoli
1113 First recognized by Pope Paschal II as a Religious Order
1114 Catalan crusade to the Balearic Islands
1118 Crusade of Pope Gelasius II of Spain
 Dec 19 Saragossa falls to the Crusaders
1119 June 27 Battle of the Field of Blood
 Knights connected to the Church of the Holy Sepultre band
 together to fight Muslims and defend Pilgrims in the Kingdom of
 Jerusalem.
1120-5 Crusade of Pope Calixtus II to the east of Spain
1120 Foundation of the Knights Templar at the Church Council at
 Nablus. King Baldwin II of Jerusalem gives the Templars his palace
 in the former Aqsa Mosque
1122
Concordat of Worms increases secular power over the German
 Church
1123 March-April Crusade decree of First Lateran Council. The Council
  ratifies the division of secular and spiritual power
1124 July 7 Capture of Tyre by crusaders
1125-6 Raid of Alfonso I of Aragon into Andalusia
1128-9 Crusade of the east recruited by Hugh of Payns
1128 Countess Teresa of Portugal  Promissed the Templars the Castle  
 of Source on the Muslim Borders of Portugal.
1129 Jan. Recognition of the Templars by the Council of Troyes
 Nov. Crusaders attack Damascus
1135 May. Council of Pisa. Crusade indulgences offered to those
 taking  up arms against the anti-pope and the Normans in southern
 Italy.
1136 King Fulk of Jerusalem assigned the castle and town of
Bethgibelin          to be defended by the Hospitallers
1138 Start of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty in Germany
1139-40 Crusade to the east
1142 Peter Abelard dies
1144 Hospitallers receive the castle of Krak des Chevaliers
 Dec 24 Fall of Edessa to the Muslims
1145 Dec1 Pope Eugenius III proclaims the Second Crusade in the
 bull
Quantum Praedecessores
1146-7 St. Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade
1146 Persecution of Jews in the Rhineland
1147-9 Second Crusade
1147 Apr 13 Pope Eugenius authorizes crusading in Spain and
beyond             the north-eastern frontier of Germany as well as to the
east.
 Oct 24 Capture of Lisbon
1148 July 8 Withdrawal of the crusaders from the siege of Damascus
1149 July 15 Consecration of the new church of the Holy Sepulchre
 Second Crusade ends
1150 University of Paris Founded
1153 Crusade in Spain
1154 Apr 25 Occupation of Damascus by Nur al-Din
 Henry II becomes first Angevin King of england
1155 Earliest recorded Fire Insurance in Iceland
1157-84 Series of Papal calls to crusade in the East, answered by
 some  small expeditions.
1157-8 Crusade in Spain
1158 Foundation of the Order of Calatrave
1163-9 Expeditions to Egypt of King Almalric of Jerusalem
 Construction begins of the Notre Dame Cathdral in Paris
1169 Completion of redecoration of the church of Nativity in Bethlehem,   
 sponsered by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, Kinf Almalric
of                  Jerusalem, and Bishop 17Ralph of Bethlehem.
 March 23 Egypt submits to Saladin, acting on behalf of Nur al-Din
1170 Foundation of the Order of Santiago
1171 Crusade in the Baltic Region
1172 Sept 10 Abbasid caliphate proclaimed in Egypt by Saladin
1173 Foundation of the Order of Montegaudio
1174 May 15 Death of Nur al-Din
 Oct 28 Saladin takes over Damascus
1175 Crusade in Spain
1176 Foundation of the Orders of Avis (as the Order of Evora) and        
 Alcantara ( as the Order of San Julian del Peirero)
 Battle of Legnano
 Saladin conquers Syria
1177 Crusade to the East of Phillip of Flanders
1179 Construction of learning topwer of Pisa
1180 Order of Montjoie founded
1183 June 11 Aleppo submits to Saladin
1186 Mar 3 Mosul submits to Saladin
1187 July 4 Battle of Hattin
 Oct 2 Jerusalem taken by Saladin
 Oct 29 Pope Grerory VIII proclaims Third Crusade in the bull
Audita
 tremendi
1188 Jan. Imposition of the Saladin Tithe in England
1189-92 The Third Crusade
1189 Sept 3 Fall of Silves in Portugal to crusaders
1190 June 10 Drowning of Emperor Fredrick I in Cilicia
   The founding of the Teutonic Order in the Holy Land
1191 June Richard I of England takes Cyprus
 Order of St. Thomas of Canterbury Founded
 July12 Capitulation of Acre to Richard I of England and Phillip II of
 France
 Sept 7 Battle of Arsuf
1192 Sept 2 Treaty of Jaffa
1193-1230 The Livonian Crusade
1193 Crusade in Spain
1194 Emperor Henry VI conquers Norman Kingdom in Sicily
1197-8 German Crusade in Palastine
1197 Crusade in Spain
1198 Foundation of the Teutonic Order
   Aug. Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fourth Crusade
1199 Nov. Proclamation of the Crusade against Markward of Anweiler
   Dec. Taxation of the church for the Crusade instituted
1200 Foundation of the Order of San Jorge of Alfama
1202 Establishment of the Order of Swordbrethren
1202-4 The Fourth Crusade
1202 Nov 24 Crusaders take Zara
1204 Pope Innocent allows recruitment for the Livonian Crusade on a     
 regular basis
 Apr 12-15 Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders
 May 9 Baldwin of Flanders elected first latin emperor of                 
 Constantinople
1204-5 Conquest of the Peleponnese by Geoffrey of Villehardouin and   
 William of Champlitte
1206 Danish Crusade of Osel
1208 Jan 14 Assassination of Peter of Castelnau, the papal legate in     
  Languedoc
 Proclamation of the Albigensian Crusade
1209-29 The Albigensian Crusade
1209 July 22 Sack of Beziers
1211 King of Hungary gives the Teutonic Order a march in Transylvania
1212 The Childrens Crusade
 Crusade in Spain
 July 17 Ballte of Las Navas de Tolosa
1213 Apr. Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fifth Crusade. The Spanish   
 and Albigensian Crusades are downgraded in favor of the eastren
 theater of war
 Sept 12 Battle of Muret
1215 Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Tpulouse
 Dec 14 The constitution
Ad Liberandam agreed by the Fourth        
 Lateran Council, permitting regular taxation of the church for        
 crusading
1216 Oct 28 King Henry III of england takes the cross against
English                rebels
1217-29 The Fifth Crusade
1218 March 27- Nov.1219 Siege of Damietta
 Order of our Lady of Ransom (Nuestra Señora de Merced, also
 called Mercedarians), founded (1218) in Aragon by St. Peter
 Nolasco for the redemption of captives.
1219 Danish Crusade to Estonia
1221 Aug.30 Crusaders in Egypt defeated at al-Mansura1225 Teutonic   
 Order invited to Prussia
1226 Albigensian Crusade renewed
 The Golden Bull of Rimini
1227 Crusade authorized against heritics in Bosnia
1228-1228 Crusade of the Emperor Fredrick II
  The Teutonic Order is granted Kulmerland in Poland
1229-33 Civil War in Cyprus
1229 Feb 18 Jerusakem restored to Chistians by treaty
 April 12 Peace of Paris ends Albigensian Crusade
 Tuetonic Order begins conquest of Prussia
1229-53 Crusade in Spain
1229-31 Crusade of James I of Aragon to Mallorca
1231 Crusade of John of Brienne in aid of Constantinople
 Crusade of Fredrick II of Castille in Spain
 The Caslte of Thorn is built
1232-4 Crusade against the Stedinger heretics in Germany
1232-53  Conquest of Valencia by James of Aragon
1233 The first Teutonic Castle at Marienwerder is established
1234 Papal permission is given for the Teutonic Order to form a secular
 state
1236 Proclamation of a new crusade in support of Constantinople
 June 29 Ferdinand III of Castile takes Cordoba
1237 Teutonic Order absorbs Swordbrethren in Livonia
1230-40 Crusade in aid of Constantinople
1239-41 Crusade of Thibaut of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall
1239 Proclamation of the Crusade against the Emperor Fredrick II
 Swedish Crusade in Finland
1241 Proclamation of the Crusade against Mongols
1242 First Russian Revolt against the Tuetonic Order
 April 5 Battle of Lake Peipus. Alexander Nevsky defeats Teutonic
1244 March 16 Fall of Montsegur
 July 11-Aug 23 Fall of Jerusalem to the Khorezmains
 Oct. 17 Battle of La Forbie
1245 Teutonic Order permitted to wage a permanent crusade in Prussia
1248-54 First Crusade of St. Louis (King Louis IX of France)
1248 Oct. Aachen taken by crusaders engaged against Fredrick II
 Nov 23Seville taken by Ferdinand III of Castille
1249 June Capture of Damietta
1250 Feb 8 Crusadersin Egypt defeated at al-Mansura
1250-4 St. Louis in Palestine
1251 First Crusade of the Shepherds
1254 Crusade to Prussia of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, Rudolf of           
 Habsburg and Otto of Brandenburg. Foundation of Konigsberg
1255 Crusades preached against Manfred of Staufen and against
 Ezzelino and Alberic of Romano
1256-8 War of St Sabas in Acre
1258 Feb 10 Mongols sack Baghdad
1259 Latins of Achaea defeated by Greeks in the Battle of Pelagonia
1260 Livonian Teutonic Knights defeated by the Lthuanians in the
Battle           of Durbe
Second Prussian revolt
Castillian Crusade to Sale in Morocco
Sept 3 Battle of Ayn Jalut
Oct 23 Baybars becomes sultan of Egypt
1261 July 25 Greeks reoccupy Constantinople
1265-6 Crusade of Carles of Anjou to southren Italy
 Al-Zahir Baybars seized Caesarea and Arsuf
1266 Feb 26 Battle of Benevento
 Al-Zahir Baybars seized Safad
1268 May 18 Fall of Antioch to Mamluks
 Aug 23 Battle of Tagliacozzp
 Al-Zahir Baybars seized Jaffa
1269-72 Second crusade of St. Louis
1269 Aragonese crusade to Palistine
1270 Aug 25 Death of St. Louis in Tunisia
1271-2 Edward of England in Palistine
 Al-Zahir Baybars siezed Krak des Chevaliers
1274 May 18 Crusade decree
Constitutiones pro zel fidei of
Second                  Council of Lyons
1275 Foundation of the Order of Santa Maria de Espana
1277 Sept Vicar of Charles of Anjou, who had bought the crown of
 Jerusalem from a pretender arrives in Acre. Kingdom of Jerusalem
 split.
1282 Mar 30 Sicilian Vespers
1283-1302 Crusade against the Sicilians and Aragonese
1284 French Crusade against Aragon
1286 June 4 Kingdom of Jerusalem reunited under King Hernry II of
 Cyprus
1287 June 18 Crusade to the East of Alice of Blois
1288 Crusade to the East by John of Grailly
1289 April 26 Tripoli falls to the Mamluks
 July Sidon and Beruit fall to the Mamluks
 Aug. Christians leave Tortosa and Chateau Oelerin
1290 Death of Al-Zahir Baybars
1291 Fall of Acre. Final fall of the Crusader StatesTeutonic moves to
 Venice
1302 Muslims take island of Ruad from Templars
 Latin rule in Jubail ends
 Aug 13 Treaty of Caltabellotta
1306 Hospitallers begin invasion of Byzantine Island of Rhodes
1306-7 Crusade against followers of Fra Dolcino in Peidmont
1307 Crusade proclaimed in support of Charles of Valois's claims to
 Constantinople
 Oct 13 Black Friday..Arrest of all Templars in France
1309 Popular Crusade
 Teutonic Order moves headquarters to Marienburg in Prussia
1309-10 Castillian and Aragonese Crusade in Spain
 Crusade against Venice
1310 Hospitaller Crusade consolidates hold on Rhodes
1311 Hospitaller headquarters now established on Phodes
 March 15 Battle of Halmyros. Catalan Company assumes control of
 Athens and Thebes.
1312 April 3 Order of the Knights Templar suppressed
 May2 Pope Clemet V grants most of the Templat properties to the
 Hospitallers
 Hospitaller Naval victory over the Turks. Estabished Hospitallers as
 naval power in the Mediteranian.
1314 Crusade in Hungary
 March 18 The last Templar master, James of Molay and Geoffrey
 of Charney are burnt on the stake.
1317 Foundation of the Order of Montesa
 Hospitaller Grand Master Foulques de Villaret disposed. Order
 under temporary leader, Gerard de Pins
1319 Foundation of the Order of Christ
 Hospitaller and Genoese fleet destroy Turkish flotilla off Ephesus.
1320 Second Crusade of Shepherds
1321 Crusade against Ferrara, Milan, and the Ghibellines in the march
 of Ancona and duchy of Spoleto
1323 Norwegian Crusade against the Russians in Finland
1325 Crusade in Poland
1327 Crusade against the Cathars in Hungary
1328 Crusade proclaimed against King Louis IV of germany
 Crusade in Spain
1330 Crusade planned against Catalan Athens
1221 New Crusade to the East Proclaimed
1332-4 First Crusade League
1334 Ships of Crusade League defeat Turks in Gulf of Adramyttion
1337 Ayas falls to Mamluks
 Hospitallers regain the island of Lango from the Turks.
1340 Crusade against Heritics in Bohemia
1342-4 Siege of Algeciras
1344 Crusade to Canary Islands planned
 Oct 28 Crusade League occupies Smyrna
 Hospitallers join Papal League in the capture of Izmir
1345-7 Crusade of Humbert, dauphin of Viennois
1345 Crusade of Genose to defend Kaffa against the Mongols
1346 Diedudonne de Gozon becomes Hospitaller Grand Master
1348 Crusade of King Magnus of Sweden to Finland
 Plague hits Rhodes
1349-50 Siege of Gilbralter
1352-7 Crusade to regain control of the Papal States in Italy
1353 Pierre de Corneillan becomes Grand Master of the Hospitallers
1354 Proposal of Crusade to Africa
 Crusade against Cesena and Faenza
1355 Roger de Pins becomes Grand Master of the Hospitallers
1359 Crusade League defeats Turks at Lampsakos
 Hospitaller ships join others in defeating a Turkish floatilla off the
 Dardanelles
1360 Crusade against Milan
1361 Hospitallers join Cyprus in attacking Antalya
1365-67 Crusade of King Peter I of Cyprus
1365 Oct 15 Alexandria taken and held for six days by Peter of Cyprus
 Raimond Berenger becomes Hospitaller Grand Master
1366 Aug-Dec Crusade of Amadeus of Savoy to Dardanelles and
 Bulgaria
1370 Death of King Casimir II of Poland
1374 Hospitallers take over defence of Smyrna
 Robert de Juikky becomes Hospitaller Grand Master
1377 Achaea leased to the Hospitallers for five years, leading to the rule
 of the Navarrese Company
Juan Fernandez de Heredia becomes Hospitaller Grand Master
1378 Capture of the Hospitaller master Juan Fernandez de Heredia by
 the Albanians
1379 Navarrse Comany takes Thebes
1383 Crusade of the Bishop of Norwich agains the Clementists in
 Flanders
"Anti-Master" Riccardo Caracciolo appointed by Pope Urban VI but
 not accepted in Rhodes
1386 Crusade of John of Gaunt in Castille
 Union of Poland and Lithuania. The conversion of the Lithuania to
 Christianity
1390 Crusade of Mahdia
1396 Crusade of Nicopolis
 Sept 25 Battle of Nicopolis defeat of the Crusaders
 Philbert de Naillac becomes Hospitaller Grand Master
1398 Crusade to defend Constantinople proclaimed
1399-1403 Crusade of John Boucicaunt
1401 Crusader Prince of Achaea attacks Hospitaller possessions on
 Greek  mainland.
1402 Dec. Smyrna falls to Tamerlane
1410 July 10 Battle of Tannenberg
1420-31 Hussite Crusade
1420 First Hussite Crusade
1421 Second Hussite Crusade
1422 Third Hussite Crusade
1426 July 7 Battle of Khirokitia
1427 Fourth Hussite Crusade
1431 Fifth Hussite Crusade
1432 Greek despot of Morea takes over the Prinicpality of Achaea
1440-44 Mamluks attack Rhodes
1444 Crusade of Varna
 Nov 19 Crusaders defeated at Varna
1453 May 29 Constantinople falls to Turks
1454 Feb 17 Feast of the Pleasant in Lille
1455 Genoese Crusade to defend Chios
1456 Crusade of St. John of Capistrano
 June 4 Athens Occupation by Turks











1. St Jerome, Letter CXXVII. To Principia, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume
VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127 paragraph 12.